In accordance with the UNESCO IHP-IV Project and Outline of the research work of the Federal Service of Russia for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring the scientists of the State Hydrological Institute made a tremendous work during 1991-1997 on the assessment of the world water resources, water use and water availability during the present century and for the nearest future.
This work resulted in the monograph World water resources at the beginning of the XXIst century (in English) prepared and submitted to UNESCO (Division of Water Sciences) in 1998.
The monograph, prepared by a large group of scientists from the State Hydrological Institute, contains general information on hydrography and hydrosphere of the Earth; it describes general fundamental principles and methodological approaches to the assessment and prediction of water resources, water use and water availability for the future; it contains a detailed analysis of the situation in each continent, generalized information over the Earth as a whole, for major river basins, oceanic slopes, physiographic and economic regions and individual countries. Initial data and working materials, however, could not be included into the monograph, which were obtained during the research, such as numerous tables demonstrating water resources variations and water resources use during particular years and by seasons for each river basin in regions, countries and continents. This makes the practical application of the materials by specialists difficult if they need to solve various regional and global problems.
To eliminate this drawback and to make the above materials suitable for the use on the assessment of the global water resources the State Hydrological Institute, supported by UNESCO, has prepared the present CD-ROM in the form of WEB page suitable for the Internet users.
The CD-ROM consists of 4 parts.
The first part contains an extended summary of the monograph World water resources at the beginning of the XXIst century and basic research results supplied with appropriate figures, graphs and tables.
The second part contains tables and graphs of variations (for the same long-term period from 1921 up to 1985) of renewable water resources by years, these water resources distribution during a year by continents, physiographic and economic regions, selected river basins and individual countries; the dynamics of river water inflow to each ocean and to the world ocean by latitudinal zones are given.
The third part contains data on water use for the needs of population, industries, agriculture (total water withdrawal and water consumption), as well as water losses for additional evaporation from reservoirs during the present century (1900, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 1995) and for the future (2000, 2010, and 2025) for all physiographic and economic regions and continents. Water use in dynamics for selected countries is demonstrated from 1950 up to 1995 and for the future. Moreover, the values of water use published in basic international and national sources are given for comparison. The dynamics of water availability (per capita) are given for the period from 1950 up to 2025 for all physiographic and economic regions and selected countries.
The fourth part presents observation data on monthly and annual river runoff from major stations (more than 2000 hydrological stations) located in different countries in each continent. These data have been taken from different sources (from the GRDC, from publications of UNESCO and other international organizations, from the archives of the State Hydrological Institute, from national sources, including data on special requests) and have been used for the assessment of the dynamics of renewable water resources on the global scale and fresh water inflow to the World ocean.
It should be noted that during the CD preparation in 1998-1999 the values of the renewable water resources, water use and water availability have been updated greatly (compared with the data in the monograph) because additional data on several countries and regions of the world were received. This updating, however, does not affect general fundamental results and conclusions given in the monograph.
The present CD-ROM has been prepared at the State Hydrological Institute under the guidance of the author by the following specialists: V.I. Babkin (Dr. Geogr. Sci., Head of Laboratory), V.Yu. Georgievsky (Cand. Geogr. Sci., Head of Dept.), J.A.Balonishnikova (Cand. Geogr. Sci., Scientific Secretary of the Institute), N.V. Penkova (Cand. Geogr. Sci., Senior Scientist), A.V. Izmailova (Cand. Geogr. Sci., Scientist), A.I. Moiseenkov (Senior Scientist) and I.A.Nikiforova (Leader engineer).
I acknowledge my sincere gratitude for their laborious and fruitful efforts to complete the work for a very short time.
Prof. I.A. Shiklomanov,
Director, State Hydrological Institute.
Remarks, suggestions and questions concerning the material given in CD as well as the requirements for additional information can be send at the address to:
I.A. Shiklomanov, Prof., Director, SHI
J.A.Balonishnikova, Cand. Geogr. Sci., Scientific Secretary, SHI
23, 2d Line, St. Petersburg,
Tel.: (7-812) 323-35-17, (7-812) 323-01-14
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